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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Niger
 
Flag of Niger                                Map of Niger
 
Background:Niger became independent from France in 1960 and experienced single-party and military rule until 1991, when Gen. Ali SAIBOU was forced by public pressure to allow multiparty elections, which resulted in a democratic government in 1993. Political infighting brought the government to a standstill and in 1996 led to a coup by Col. Ibrahim BARE. In 1999 BARE was killed in a coup by military officers who promptly restored democratic rule and held elections that brought Mamadou TANDJA to power in December of that year. TANDJA was reelected in 2004. Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world with minimal government services and insufficient funds to develop its resource base. The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa. A predominately Tuareg ethnic group emerged in February 2007, the Nigerien Movement for Justice (MNJ), and attacked several military targets in Niger's northern region throughout 2007. Events have since evolved into a budding insurrection.
  
Geography
  
Location:Western Africa, southeast of Algeria
Geographic coordinates:16 00 N, 8 00 E
Map references:Africa
Area:total: 1.267 million sq km
land: 1,266,700 sq km
water: 300 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:total: 5,697 km
border countries: Algeria 956 km, Benin 266 km, Burkina Faso 628 km, Chad 1,175 km, Libya 354 km, Mali 821 km, Nigeria 1,497 km
Coastline:0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:none (landlocked)
Climate:desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
Terrain:predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Niger River 200 m
highest point: Mont Bagzane 2,022 m
Natural resources:uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, molybdenum, gypsum, salt, petroleum
Land use:arable land: 11.43%
permanent crops: 0.01%
other: 88.56% (2005)
Irrigated land:730 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:33.7 cu km (2003)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 2.18 cu km/yr (4%/0%/95%)
per capita: 156 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:recurring droughts
Environment—current issues:overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction
Environment—international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography—note:landlocked; one of the hottest countries in the world; northern four-fifths is desert, southern one-fifth is savanna, suitable for livestock and limited agriculture
  
People
  
Population:12,894,865 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 46.9% (male 3,083,871/female 2,969,201)
15-64 years: 50.6% (male 3,354,783/female 3,174,039)
65 years and over: 2.4% (male 155,430/female 157,541) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 16.5 years
male: 16.5 years
female: 16.4 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:2.898% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:50.16 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:20.59 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:-0.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.039 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.057 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.987 male(s)/female
total population: 1.047 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 116.83 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 120.78 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 112.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 44.03 years
male: 44.05 years
female: 44 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:7.37 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:1.2% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:70,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:4,800 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2008)
Nationality:noun: Nigerien(s)
adjective: Nigerien
Ethnic groups:Haoussa 55.4%, Djerma Sonrai 21%, Touareg 9.3%, Peuhl 8.5%, Kanouri Manga 4.7%, other 1.2% (2001 census)
Religions:Muslim 80%, other (includes indigenous beliefs and Christian) 20%
Languages:French (official), Hausa, Djerma
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 28.7%
male: 42.9%
female: 15.1% (2005 est.)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Niger
conventional short form: Niger
local long form: Republique du Niger
local short form: Niger
Government type:republic
Capital:name: Niamey
geographic coordinates: 13 31 N, 2 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:8 regions (regions, singular - region) includes 1 capital district* (communite urbaine); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder
Independence:3 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday:Republic Day, 18 December (1958)
Constitution:new constitution adopted 18 July 1999
Legal system:based on French civil law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Mamadou TANDJA (since 22 December 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Seyni OUMAROU (since 3 June 2007); appointed by the president and shares some executive responsibilities with the president
cabinet: 26-member Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); second round of election last held 4 December 2004 (next to be held December 2009)
election results: Mamadou TANDJA reelected president; percent of vote - Mamadou TANDJA 65.5%, Mahamadou ISSOUFOU 34.5%
Legislative branch:unicameral National Assembly (113 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 4 December 2004 (next to be held in December 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MNSD 47, PNDS 25, CDS 22, RSD 7, RDP 6, ANDP 5, PSDN 1
Judicial branch:State Court or Cour d'Etat; Court of Appeals or Cour d'Appel
Political parties and leaders:Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Mahamane OUSMANE]; National Movement for a Developing Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Hama AMADOU]; Niger Social Democratic Party or PSDN; Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Social Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDP-Zaman Lahiya [Moumouni DJERMAKOYE]; Nigerien Party for Autonomy or PNA-Alouma'a [Sanousi JACKOU]; Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism or PNDS-Tarrayya [Issifou MAHAMADOU]; Nigerien Progressive Party or PPN-RDA [Abdoulaye DIORI]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP-jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]; Social and Democratic Rally or RSD-Gaskiyya [Cheiffou AMADOU]
Political pressure groups and leaders:The Nigerien Movement for Justice or MNJ, a predominantly Tuareg rebel group demanding concessions including a greater share of the country's uranium revenues from the government
International organization participation:ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Aminata Djibrilla Maiga TOURE
chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227
FAX: [1] (202)483-3169
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Bernadette M. ALLEN
embassy: Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey
mailing address: B. P. 11201, Niamey
telephone: [227] 20-73-31-69
FAX: [227] 20-73-55-60
Flag description:three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small orange disk (representing the sun) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered in the white band
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world, ranking near last on the United Nations Development Fund index of human development. It is a landlocked, Sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's largest uranium deposits. Drought cycles, desertification, and a 2.9% population growth rate, have undercut the economy. Niger shares a common currency, the CFA franc, and a common central bank, the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO), with seven other members of the West African Monetary Union. In December 2000, Niger qualified for enhanced debt relief under the International Monetary Fund program for Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and concluded an agreement with the Fund on a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF). Debt relief provided under the enhanced HIPC initiative significantly reduces Niger's annual debt service obligations, freeing funds for expenditures on basic health care, primary education, HIV/AIDS prevention, rural infrastructure, and other programs geared at poverty reduction. In December 2005, Niger received 100% multilateral debt relief from the IMF, which translates into the forgiveness of approximately US $86 million in debts to the IMF, excluding the remaining assistance under HIPC. Nearly half of the government's budget is derived from foreign donor resources. Future growth may be sustained by exploitation of oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources. Uranium prices have increased sharply in the last few years. A drought and locust infestation in 2005 led to food shortages for as many as 2.5 million Nigeriens.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$8.998 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$4.219 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:4.5% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$700 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 39%
industry: 17%
services: 44% (2001)
Labor force:70,000 salaried workers, 60% of whom are employed in the public sector (1995)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 90%
industry: 6%
services: 4% (1995)
Unemployment rate:NA%
Population below poverty line:63% (1993 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 0.8%
highest 10%: 35.4% (1995)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:50.5 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):0.2% (2004 est.)
Budget:revenues: $320 million (includes $134 million from foreign sources)
expenditures: $320 million (2002 est.)
Agriculture—products:cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry
Industries:uranium mining, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses
Industrial production growth rate:5.1% (2003 est.)
Electricity—production:234.1 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:437.7 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:0 kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:220 million kWh (2005)
Oil—production:0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:5,450 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:5,412 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:existing amounts unknown (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Exports:$428 million f.o.b. (2006)
Exports—commodities:uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas, onions
Exports—partners:France 34.8%, US 26.6%, Nigeria 18.3%, Russia 11.3% (2006)
Imports:$800 million f.o.b. (2006)
Imports—commodities:foodstuffs, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals
Imports—partners:US 14.1%, France 12.1%, China 7.8%, Nigeria 7.7%, French Polynesia 7.7%, Cote d'Ivoire 4.9% (2006)
Debt—external:$2.1 billion (2003 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$NA
Economic aid—recipient:$515.4 million (2005)
Currency (code):Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States (BCEAO)
Exchange rates:Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 493.51 (2007), 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:24,000 (2005)
Telephones—mobile cellular:323,900 (2005)
Telephone system:general assessment: inadequate; small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in the southwestern area of Niger
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is less than 3 per 100 persons; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned
international: country code - 227; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 5, FM 6, shortwave 4 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:5 (2007)
Internet country code:.ne
Internet hosts:200 (2007)
Internet users:40,000 (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:28 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Roadways:total: 14,565 km
paved: 3,641 km
unpaved: 10,924 km (2004)
Waterways:300 km (the Niger, the only major river, is navigable to Gaya between September and March) (2005)
  
Military
  
Military branches:Nigerien Armed Forces (Forces Armees Nigeriennes, FAN): Army, Niger Air Force (2007)
Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 2,367,828
females age 18-49: 2,217,568 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 1,349,863
females age 18-49: 1,256,569 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 129,045
females age 18-49: 121,230 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:1.3% (2006)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:Libya claims about 25,000 sq km in a currently dormant dispute in the Tommo region; much of Benin-Niger boundary, including tripoint with Nigeria, remains undemarcated; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries

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